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剑桥14Test1雅思听力原文:Section 3

2020-09-24 09:35

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  Test 1-Section 3SECTION 3

  [01:07.84TUTOR: OK, so what I'd like you to do now is to talk to your partner about your presentations on urban planning.

  [01:14.67You should have done most of the reading now, so I'd like you to share your ideas, and talk about the structure of your presentation and what you need to do next.

  [01:25.97CARLA: OK Rob.

  [01:27.22I'm glad we chose quite a specific topic - cities built next to the sea.

  [01:32.41It made it much easier to find relevant information.

  [01:35.44ROB: Yeah.

  [01:36.20And cities are growing so quickly - I mean, we know that more than half the world's population lives in cities now.

  [01:43.10CARLA: Yeah, though that's all cities, not just ones on the coast.

  [01:47.98But most of the biggest cities are actually built by the sea.

  [01:51.58I'd not realised that before.

  [01:53.30ROB: Nor me.

  [01:54.48And what's more, a lot of them are built at places where rivers come out into the sea.

  [01:59.28But apparently this can be a problem.

  [02:01.46CARLA: Why?

  [02:02.40ROB: Well, as the city expands, agriculture and industry tend to spread further inland along the rivers, and so agriculture moves even further inland up the river.

  [02:13.29That's not necessarily a problem, except it means more and more pollutants are discharged into the rivers.

  [02:19.56CARLA: So these are brought downstream to the cities?

  [02:23.07ROB: Right.

  [02:24.33Hmm.

  [02:25.20Did you read that article about Miami, on the east coast of the USA?

  [02:28.32CARLA: No.

  [02:29.14ROB: Well, apparently back in the 1950s they built channels to drain away the water in case of flooding.

  [02:34.77CARLA: Sounds sensible.

  [02:36.61ROB: Yeah, they spent quite a lot of money on them.

  [02:39.47But what they didn't take into account was global warming.

  [02:42.90So they built the drainage channels too close to sea level, and now sea levels are rising, they're more or less useless.

  [02:49.67If there's a lot of rain, the water can't run away, there's nowhere for it to go.

  [02:54.50The whole design was faulty.

  [02:56.45CARLA: So what are the authorities doing about it now?

  [02:59.98ROB: I don't know.

  [03:01.15I did read that they're aiming to stop disposing of waste water into the ocean over the next ten years.

  [03:06.82CARLA: But that won't help with flood prevention now, will it?

  [03:10.26ROB: No.

  [03:10.98Really they just need to find the money for something to replace the drainage channels in order to protect against flooding now.

  [03:18.18But in the long term they need to consider the whole ecosystem.

  [03:21.72CARLA: Right.

  [03:23.33Really, though, coastal cities can't deal with their problems on their own, can they?

  [03:28.48I mean, they've got to start acting together at an international level instead of just doing their own thing.

  [03:34.86ROB: Absolutely.

  [03:36.19The thing is, everyone knows what the problems are and environmentalists have a pretty good idea of what we should be doing about them, so they should be able to work together to some extent.

  [03:47.04But it's going to be a long time before countries come to a decision on what principles they're prepared to abide by.

  [03:53.08CARLA: Yes, if they ever do.

  [04:38.23CARLA: So I think we've probably got enough for our presentation.

  [04:41.60It's only fifteen minutes.

  [04:43.10ROB: OK.

  [04:43.80So I suppose we'll begin with some general historical background about why coastal cities were established.

  [04:50.50But we don't want to spend too long on that.

  [04:53.14The other students will already know a bit about it.

  [04:55.54It's all to do with communications and so on.

  [04:58.70CARLA: Yes.

  [04:59.76We should mention some geographical factors, things like wetlands and river estuaries and coastal erosion and so on.

  [05:08.73We could have some maps of different cities with these features marked.

  [05:13.03ROB: On a handout you mean?

  [05:14.59Or some slides everyone can see?

  [05:16.76CARLA: Yeah, that'd be better.

  [05:18.73ROB: It'd be good to go into past mistakes in a bit more detail.

  [05:22.65Did you read that case study of the problems there were in New Orleans with flooding a few years ago?

  [05:27.89CARLA: Yes.

  [05:28.74We could use that as the basis for that part of the talk.

  [05:32.89I don't think the other students will have read it, but they'll remember hearing about the flooding at the time.

  [05:38.44ROB: OK.

  [05:39.92So that's probably enough background.

  [05:42.73CARLA: So then we'll go on to talk about what action's being taken to deal with the problems of coastal cities.

  [05:49.19ROB: OK.

  [05:50.47What else do we need to talk about?

  [05:52.90Maybe something on future risks, looking more at the long term, if populations continue to grow.

  [05:58.51CARLA: Yeah.

  [05:59.73We'll need to do a bit of work there, I haven't got much information, have you?

  [06:04.88ROB: No.

  [06:05.56We'll need to look at some websites.

  [06:07.46Shouldn't take too long.

  [06:08.62CARLA: OK.

  [06:09.66And I think we should end by talking about international implications.

  [06:15.09Maybe we could ask people in the audience.

  [06:17.76We've got people from quite a lot of different places.

  [06:20.40ROB: That'd be interesting, if we have time, yes.

  [06:23.49So now shall we…

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