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雅思阅读:语法备考内容

2020-09-08 22:55

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  一.长句的处理

  总所周知,雅思阅读的三篇文章都比较长,而且单词也相对比较难。然后最让考生头

  痛的就是几乎一半以上的句子都是长句。而所谓的对长句的处理就是指能清楚地知道这个长句的主干在是什么呢,基本上指的就是这个长句的主谓宾或主谓表是什么。这样的话,就大大减轻了考生的负担和压力。因为主干的单词往往都相对而言比较简单,并且,主干上的意思基本上就是作者的要表达的意义。当然,还有一个点是能弄懂长句的比较有立竿见影的好处就是出题者的出题特点。

  我们先来看几个例子

  1. 题目:Research completed in 1982 found that in the United States soil erosion……(C3T2P2)

  A reduced the productivity of farmland by20 per cent

  B was almost as severe as in India and China

  C was causing significant damage to 20 per cent of farmland

  D could be reduced by converting cultivated land to meadow or forest

  原文:The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil’s productivity.

  很明显,原文是一个长句,而对于长句的处理就是找出主干,我们可以看出来,这个句子的主干是The United States discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil。所以答案就非常明显应该选择C。所以你会发现很多考生都会选的A项经过对此长句的分析,它根本就不在此长句的主干,也就是说这是对作者要表达的意思的补充说明。从这里我们可以看出,出题者对干扰项的出题思路,干扰项所在的位置都是定位句子的非主干部分。

  2. 题目:Paragraph B How the port changes a city’s infrastructure (C2T2P3)

  原文:Port cities become industrial, financial and service centers and political capitals because of their water connections and the urban concentration which arises there and later draws to it railway, highways and air routes. Water transport means cheap access, the chief basis of all port cities. Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aries, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports—that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function—but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects, so that their port functions are no longer dominant. They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.

  做这一道题的时候,考生只要知道出题者的出干扰项的思路,就不会选How the port changes a city’s infrastructure这个小标题。很多考生之所以会选这个答案,很大程度上是因为第一句:Port cities become industrial, financial and service centers and political capitals because of their water connections and the urban concentration which arises there and later draws to it railway, highways and air routes. city’s infrastructure想对应的就是railway, highways and air routes。然而我们可以看到这个长句的主干是:Port cities become industrial, financial and service centers and political capitals。故这个小标题是个干扰项。

  3. 题目:Paragraph B Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion

  Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (C2T1P2)

  原文:At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains as the backbone of health action today. In exploring the scope of health promotion it states that:

  Good health is a major resource for social, economic and personal development and an important dimension of quality of life. Political, economica, social, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological factors can all favour health or be harmful to it.(WHO, 1986)

  The Ottawa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. It presents fundamental strategies and approaches in achieving health for all. The overall philosophy of health promotion which guides these fundamental strategies and approaches is one of ‘enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health’ (WHO, 1986).

  同样的道理,我们之间看到,这里的第一句:At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health.这个句子的主干就是:a charter was developed。所以小标题中的Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion 就是干扰项的常用的招数。

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